“Water is clearly vital for life. What is perhaps more surprising is that water plays a crucial role in lubricating the motion of plates – without it there would be no plate techtonics. So water quickens life and the Earth itself.” – David Singleton
Source: Earth Story: The Shaping of Our World
The earth’s crust is not one piece. There are plates, called tectonic plates, that sit next to one another like pieces in a puzzle. These plates bump against each other, sometimes causing cracks we call faults. Faults and mountain ranges are often found together, as the mountains were formed by edges of faults slipping past one another. There are also faults beneath the oceans.
A fault is a fracture (crack or break) in the earth’s outer layer (crust) in which the edges have moved up, down, or sideways. It is like two puzzle pieces that no longer fit together smoothly. As the broken edges press against one another energy is stored up. When the edges finally move, that energy is released as an earthquake.
Think of moving a heavy chest of drawers across a floor. You push harder and harder, storing energy, until the dresser finally slides over the floor, then stops as the energy is used up. Then you have to push a gain to cause more movement.
On a dip-slip fault, the rock planes move against one another mostly vertically. The two types of dip-slip faults are the normal (also called normal-slip fault, tensional fault or gravity fault) and the reverse (also called thrust fault, reverse-slip fault or compressional fault.) In a normal fault, the footwall of crust moves up over the hanging wall. In the reverse fault, the footwall moves down.
Along a strike-slip fault, the rock planes move mostly horizontally (laterally or sideways.) One plate moves right or left, rubbing against the other plate. The San Andreas Fault in California and the Anatolian Fault in Turkey are two well-known examples of this type of fault. Other names for this type of fault are: transcurrent fault, lateral fault, tear fault or wrench fault.
The oblique fault has both horizontal (strike-slip) and vertical (dip-slip) movements that are measurable. Most faults have both types of movement, but one is much greater than the other. The oblique fault has significant movement in both directions.
“Shake It Up” Engineering Design Challenge: You are a groovy earthquake engineer who has been contracted by the city of Los Angeles. Using only the materials from your Groovy Lab in a Box, can you design and build the tallest skyscraper that can withstand the next BIG quake?
During their engineering design process, STEMists will investigate what causes earthquakes while constructing a groovy seismograph and shake table. Explore S and P waves, fault planes, famous earthquake proof structures around the world and much, much more! From their groovy lab notebook, STEMists do investigation activities which work in tandem with the special “Beyond…in a Box” online learning portal. This is a unique feature of Groovy Lab in a Box because it gives STEMists a deeper understanding of that month’s topic. “Beyond…in a Box” has videos, reading library and more interactive activities to supplement what they are learning from the box projects, which also helps the STEMist even more when completing the design challenge.
Join Now! and challenge your STEMists to a monthly Groovy Lab in a Box, full of everything a child needs to learn about and do hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) investigations and engineering design challenges. Our monthly box activates thinking, questioning, inquiring and original creation as we guide children through scientific inquiry and the engineering design process.
“I was sold on flying as soon as I had a taste for it.” – John Glenn
Many young STEMists are curious about flight – whether they are watching how a bird flies or making a paper airplane that floats around the room. As you think about your summer vacation plans, consider visiting one of the many aviation museums around the U.S. Not only will your kids learn more about aviation, you and the entire family will have fun doing it. And, museums are much cheaper than theme park tickets!
Here are six U.S. aviation museums to investigate for your next STEM Family vacation:
The Smithsonian Air and Space Museum is the largest of the Smithsonian’s 19 museums. Its collection includes Saturn V rockets, Charles Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis and the Apollo 11 Command Module, Columbia. Be sure to check out the Albert Einstein planetarium, where you will feel like you are zooming across the skis. The Smithsonian offers daily tours and educational activities for every member of the family.
The Udvar-Hazy Center is a companion center to the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. Located at Dulles International Airport, the center features two large hangars that contain thousands of aviation and space artifacts. Visitors to the Udvar-Hazy Center can see a Concorde jet, the space shuttle Discovery and panoramic views of Dulles International airport. Like at the Smithsonian, you can enjoy daily tours, lectures, events and educational activities.
The Virginia Air and Space Center serves as the visitor center for NASA Langley Research Center and Langley Air Force Base. The center celebrates more than 100 years of flight with fun and interactive exhibits, including launching a rocket, piloting a space shuttle and flying an airplane. The Virginia Air and Space Center also has an Apollo 12 Command Module, Mars meteorite and a moon rock. Also check out a movie in the center’s 3D IMAX theater and take a spin on the Hampton Carousel, a restored carousel that is near the air and space center.
Located in Balboa Park in San Diego, the Air and Space Museum is a “must-stop” destination if you are traveling to Southern California. The museum emphasizes San Diego’s contribution to the field of aviation, so many of the exhibits focus on war aircraft, and modern jet and space travel. Some of the galleries include the World War I Gallery, Golden Age of Flight Gallery, World War II Gallery and Modern Jet & Space Age Gallery. Be sure to check out the flight simulators if you have a strong stomach! Lectures, student programs and other events are available.
The Museum of Flight has more than 150 air and space craft on display, including the world’s first fighter plane, the first Air Force one and the Blackbird spy plane (the world’s fastest aircraft).
The museum also has several flight simulators, including the Voyager simulator, which is perfect for kids ages 4-11. If you are feeling especially adventurous, you can board a real vintage bi-plane and take an aerial tour of Seattle. Be sure to check out the museum’s special events, including their annual Women Fly! event for young women interested in aviation and aerospace careers.
The Southern Museum of Flight is a 75,000-square-foot facility that contains more than 90 types of aircraft, as well as engines, models and other aviation artifacts. Museum visitors can check out the Korean War Jets Exhibit, Tuskegee Airmen Exhibit, Vietnam War Helicopters Exhibit and more. Kids may enjoy the flight simulator and climbing the many displays. Additionally, the museum is adjacent to the Alabama Aviation Hall of Fame, whose members include Wilbur & Orville Wright and NASA astronaut Jan Davis.
Aviation is one of the many great careers available to STEMists, so be sure to foster their natural curiosity with a trip to an aviation museum. Please check each museum’s event calendar, admission price and hours of operation before your trip to ensure you get the most out of your visit. Most importantly, have fun and make wonderful memories with your groovy STEM Family!
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“Flying is the best possible thing for women.” — Baroness Raymonde de la Roche
Although men were the first aviators, women quickly took to the air as well. Most early flight schools did not accept female students, but determined women learned from friends or paid for private lessons. Since the early 19th century, women have been making strides in the field of aviation. From flying the first airplanes to walking in space, women have been accomplishing aviation and aerospace milestones for more than 100 years. Let’s take a look at the lives of seven female aersopace pioneers:
Baroness Raymonde de la Roche
The first woman pilot, Baroness Raymonde de la Roche, was licensed in 1910 in France. She was taught by her friend, Charles Voisin. In 1919 this talented engineer and pilot set a women’s altitude record by flying at a height of 4,785 meters. In the summer of that year she decided to become the first female test pilot. The new aircraft went into a dive and crashed, killing her and the pilot.
Elizabeth “Bessie” Coleman
In 1921 Elizabeth “Bessie” Coleman, a Texan, became the first civilian (non-military) licensed African-American pilot in the world. She went to France to learn to fly after her brothers, who served in World War II, told her French women were allowed to fly. When she returned to the United States she did air shows: barnstorming, parachute jumping, and giving demonstrations. Coleman would only perform if the audience was not segregated and all people got to enter the show through the same gate. This courageous and adventurous woman fell from the open cockpit of a plane during a test flight which ended her life on April 30, 1926. She was enshrined in the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 2006.
Madame Therese Peltier
Born in France in 1873, Madame Peltier was a well-known sculptor in Paris. She became interested in aviation when her friend and fellow sculptor, Leon Delagrange, took an interest in flying. She was Delagrange’s constant passenger, observing how his airplane works and studying the mechanics of aviation. She began to take lessons from Delagrange, and in 1908, she completed her first solo flight. With this flight, Peltier became the first woman to pilot a heavier-than-air craft. Despite her successful flight, Peltier never applied for her pilot’s license. In 1910, Delagrange died in an airplane crash in Bordeaux, and Peltier lost interest in aviation. In a time when most women were thought unable to drive a car – much less pilot an airplane – Peltier’s accomplishments as an aviator are truly remarkable.
Amelia Earhart was born in 1897 in Kansas and fell in love with airplanes while attending an air show in Toronto as a teenager. As a college student, Earhart convinced her father to pay for flying lessons. After just one ten-minute lesson, Earhart was hooked and worked a variety of jobs, including photographer, truck driver and stenographer, to raise the money needed for her remaining lessons. In 1923, Earhart became the 16th woman to earn a pilot’s license. In 1932, after years of flying with male pilots, Earhart wanted to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in a solo flight. She set off from Newfoundland and landed in a pasture at Culmore in Northern Ireland. She had hoped to make it to Paris, but strong winds shortened her journey. Nevertheless, with this flight, Earhart became the first female pilot to complete a solo transatlantic flight.
Valentina Tereshkova is a former Soviet cosmonaut who became the first woman in space. Her career, though, started out on a different path. As a young girl, Tereshkova was interested in parachuting and later took skydiving lessons. She completed her first jump at the age of 22. At the time, she was an assembly line worker with barely a high school education.
In 1961, the Soviet Union wanted to put a woman in space and began a search for the country’s first female cosmonaut. Tereshkova applied and was selected out of more than 400 candidates, based largely on her expertise as a parachutist and skydiver.
In 1963, at the age of 26, Tereshkova boarded the Vostok 6 and began her three-day space journey, orbiting the earth 48 times. After her flight, Tereshkova studied at the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy and earned a doctorate in engineering.
Geraldine “Jerrie” Mock
In 1964 Geraldine “Jerrie” Mock became the first woman to fly solo around the world. Her flight took 29 days and was completed April 17, 1964. According to her obituary, Mock thought her flight was no big deal. She said she did it mostly “to have fun.” Although she enjoyed flying, she obviously took it seriously, too–she did, after all, live to the age of 88. When she did her around-the-world flight, she was a full-time mother of three children and had been a licensed pilot for only seven years. During her famous flight she once had to land in Saudi Arabia. After she exited the plane, the crowd waited for a man (the pilot) to come out, too. When no man emerged, they realized she was the pilot and many cheered. Her plane, the Spirit of Columbus, is in a museum in Chantilly, Virginia.
Dr. Sally Ride
Dr. Sally Ride, a physicist, became the first American Woman to fly in space. Her first space shuttle mission took off on June 18, 1983. She flew a second mission in 1984. One of her specialties on the mission was to operate the robotic arm used to place satellites in orbit. She became part of the astronaut Hall of Fame in 2003. Until she died in 2012, Sally Ride worked hard to encourage young people to study science and math. She had college degrees in both English and physics, and went on to earn a Ph.D. (the highest degree one can earn in a field) in physics. Dr. Ride knew how important education is and wanted to help students in any way she could. She often shared her space experiences in schools and in interviews. Her company, Sally Ride Science, especially encouraged girls to develop their interests in science and technology.
Female Aviation Timeline
How much do you know about female aviation pioneers? Here’s a timeline of female aviation and aerospace accomplishments to inspire your future aviator:
1906 – E. Lillian Todd became the first woman to help design and build an aircraft
1908 – Madame Therese Peltier became the first woman to fly an airplane by herself
1910 – Baroness Raymonde de Laroche got the first women’s pilot license
1910 – Bessica Raiche became the first American woman to earn a pilot’s license
1911 – Harriet Quimby was the first American woman fly across the English Channel
1913 – Katherine Stinson was the first American woman to operate a flight school
1921 – Bessie Coleman was the first African American to earn an International Pilot’s License
1928 – Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean
1930 – Amy Johnson was the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia
1934 – Jeanette Picard was America’s first female licensed balloon pilot and America’s first woman to enter the stratosphere
1934 – Helen Richey was the first woman to be hired to pilot a U.S. commercial airline
1936 – Jean Batten was the first pilot to fly solo from England to New Zealand
1937 – Sabiha Gokcen of Turkey was the first female pilot to fly combat missions
1938 – Hanna Reitsch was the first woman to fly a helicopter
1938 – Willa Brown was the first African-American woman to earn her pilot’s license and commercial license
1953 – Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to break the sound barrier
1963 – Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman to fly in space
1964 – Geraldine Mock was the first woman to fly solo around the world
1974 – Barbara Allen Rainey was the first female pilot in the U.S. military
1976 – Emily Howell Warner was the first female to command a major American passenger flight
1980 – Lynn Rippelmeyer was the first woman pilot to fly a Boeing 747
1983 – Sally Ride became the first American woman to go to space
1984 – Svetlana Savitskaya was the first woman to ever perform a space walk
1992 – Dr. Mae Jemison was the first African American woman to go to space
1995 – Martha McSally was the first woman to fly combat missions for the United States
1996 – Shannon Lucid is the American astronaut who has been in space for the longest period of time and the American woman with the most missions to space
1997 – Eileen Collins was the first woman to command a U.S. space shuttle mission
2001 – Polly Vacher became the first woman to fly around the world in a small plane
2001 – Vernice Armour became the first African-American combat pilot
2012 – Liu Yang was the first Chinese woman to launch into space
2012 – Col. Jeannie Flynn Leavitt became the U.S. Air Force’s first female wing commander
If your STEMist (your child!) loves aviation and space, be sure to check out the “Fly With Me” groovy box! Engineering Design Challenge: You are a starry-eyed aerospace engineer and a groovy world traveler. You dream of taking off in the blue, gliding where the air is stratified and floating down to Peru. Using only the materials from your Groovy Lab in a Box, can you design, build, and launch an airplane generating thrust with a propeller which travels fifteen feet? STEMists, get ready to pack up and fly away!
“If I have seen a little further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.” – Sir Isaac Newton
Young STEMists can learn much from the life of Galileo. Like all good STEMists, he studied the work of those who had gone before him. As he studied, he asked questions to test those ideas. Sometimes he found new, better explanations for the way things work. Every good STEMist learns from the past and tries to go further and do better.
Galileo: Groovy Ideas to Explain the Universe
Galileo Galilei was born in 1564 in Pisa, Italy. His father was a musician. Though the family was noble, they were not wealthy. In 1581, Galileo was sent to the University of Pisa to study medicine. While there, he was especially fascinated by the fields of mathematics and physics.
Galileo became a professor at the University of Pisa, where he taught from 1589 through 1592. He did research on the motion of falling objects. At that time, STEMists still believed the world operated the way Aristotle, a famous Greek philosopher, had described. They believed, for example, that the earth was the center of the universe and that heavier objects fell faster than lightweight objects. Galileo’s research, which he published in a book, On Motion, showed that all objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum. This was not what Aristotle had predicted.
After his time at the University of Pisa, Galileo taught geometry, mechanics, and astronomy at the University of Padua for eighteen years. During this time he began to support the theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish astronomer who said the planets revolved around the sun.
We call this the heliocentric (sun-centered) view as opposed to Aristotle’s geocentric (earth-centered) view. Galileo made improvements to a Dutch telescope and was the first to use the telescope to make observations in astronomy. He saw that the moon, which people had thought was smooth, was actually covered in craters. He also observed that Jupiter had moons of its own–and those moons did not revolve around the earth.
He studied the motion of pendulums and came up with the idea of a pendulum clock. He also invented a water pump and made improvements to the refracting telescope, though he did not invent the telescope itself. Like many learned men of his day, Galileo was interested in many things and let his curiosity spur him to study problems until he came up with solutions.
Unfortunately, Galileo’s solutions were not popular with some powerful people in Italy. Pope Urban VIII did not approve of his Copernican ideas. The Catholic Church at that time had decided Aristotle’s ideas were correct. The Pope had Galileo found guilty of heresy (going against church teachings) and the STEMist spent the rest of his life under house arrest. In 1758 the Catholic Church at last lifted the ban on Copernicus’ heliocentric theory. The evidence by that time was clear–Galileo had been right all along to reject Aristotle’s view. In 1992 Pope John Paul II expressed regret at the way Galileo had been treated by the church.
Galileo’s life shows how ideas in STEM can change. Long ago, people came up with ideas (theories) that seemed to explain the motion of objects. Later, when people had equipment to take better measurements or to see more clearly, they found problems with the old theories and devised new ones that better explained what they observed. Remember we have never reached a point where we have learned everything for sure!